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Jewish movements expressing the hope for a new and perfected age. Jewish Orthodoxy reflects this through traditional beliefs in the coming of a personal Messiah who would re-establish the Temple in Jerusalem and from there rule over a redeemed world.


Reformed Judaism anticipates the world's perfection by the example of Judaism in human achievements such as social reforms and justice, though still concerned with preserving the identity of the Jewish race within existing states. In contrast, Zionism places emphasis on the physical restoration of the Jewish state in Palestine and the return of exiled Jews there.